Section: Country Profiles



Country expert: Gëzim Krasniqi

CITSEE papers on Albania

Citizenship in an emigrant nation-state: the case of Albania

Author: Gëzim Krasniqi


This paper explores the emergence and transformation of citizenship in Albania since the country’s independence in 1912, with a particular focus on the developments in the aftermath of the fall of communism in 1991. It argues that only after the fall of communism, which was followed by massive waves of emigration, and the subsequent liberalisation and democratisation of the Albanian state did citizenship in its modern and liberal sense slowly start to enter the political agenda in Albania. The paper also provides a detailed account of the current citizenship legislation in Albania, which reflects the country’s attempts to democratise and achieve EU membership.

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Although Albania is not a 'CITSEE state', its links to Kosovo and other states in the region, as well as its status, as far as the EU is concerned as part of the 'Western Balkans' along with the other CITSEE states apart from Slovenia, means that it should be understood very much as part of the post-Yugoslavia future of this region, although it was never part of Yugoslavia and has a longer history as a state than any of the CITSEE states in their current forms.

This paper has been produced in close collaboration with the European Union Democracy Observatory on Citizenship (EUDO-Citizenship) and has been made available as a EUDO country report on The paper followed the EUDO structure for country reports presenting historical background, current citizenship regimes and recent debates on citizenship matters in the country under scrutiny. 

Click below to access complementary materials on [links to EUDO webpages]

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