Section: Working Papers

2011

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2011/18

Diaspora Politics and Post-Territorial Citizenship in Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia

 Francesco Ragazzi and Kristina Balalovska

Abstract
How has the conception of the “nation” evolved in the countries of former Yugoslavia? After one of the most brutal civil wars on European soil - a war focused on the acquisition and ethnic cleansing of territories - this key feature of the Westphalian nation-state is going through important transformations. By looking at the citizenship policies of Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia, we argue that a new form of post-territorial citizenship is emerging, centred around the inclusion of “diasporas” and the re-configuration of the nation as “global”. Far from being the expression of a post-national or cosmopolitan conception of belonging, post-territorial citizenship establishes itself as a new principle of inclusion and exclusion based on ethno-cultural categorizations that transcend the traditional, territorial referent.

Keywords
Post-territorial Citizenship, Diaspora, Transnationalism, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia

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2011/17

Citizenship and belonging in Serbia: in the crossfire of changing nationhood narratives

 Jelena Vasiljevic

Abstract
Drawing on the idea that politics of citizenship mirror specific ideas of nationhood, this paper aims to show how the changing citizenship regimes in Serbia translate the varying narratives and perceptions of nationhood into the realities of political community. The first part of the paper offers a short historical overview of the citizenship regimes practiced in Serbia, with an emphasis upon the socialist regime and the Miloševic regime of the 1990s. Apart from providing necessary historical context, this section offers an insight into the important themes and topoi of Serbian nationhood narratives and their legal and political emanations. The second part deals with post-2000 Serbia and changes within the legal framing of citizenship status as well as the changes (or, in some respects, only partial changes) in the overall political climate. The third section of the paper shows how the current citizenship regime and dominant political narrative imagine Serbia’s political community and accordingly manage groups and identities. Finally, the last segment of the paper briefly discusses the impact of Europeanisation taken both as a process of a political transformation and as a new emerging transformative discourse.

Keywords
citizenship, Serbia, narratives, politics of belonging

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2011/16

Citizenship in Slovenia: the regime of a nationalising or a Europeanising state?

 Tomaž Deželan

Abstract
This paper attempts a comprehensive account of the Slovenian citizenship regime which has been only partially mapped by national and regional scholarship. The paper draws on a ‘nationalising state’ approach to demonstrate the nature of membership in a polity that emerged on the ruins of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). By considering the influence of the old regime on the incipient conception of citizenship and the nation-building process, the paper depicts the core dynamic in the field for the last two decades. With explorations of the initial determination of citizenry, the regulation of minorities, dual citizens and refugees, popular attitudes, the political elite’s attitudes towards non-ethnic Slovenes, and the impact of Europe, the paper provides evidence for the primacy of an ethno-cultural conception of membership, which is constrained by the embeddedness of the Slovenian citizenship regime within international and supranational frameworks.

Keywords
Slovenia, citizenship, nationalising state, ethno-nationalism, the erased, Roma, minorities, migrations, Europeanisation

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2011/15

The evolution of the Croatian citizenship regime: from independence to EU integration

 Viktor Koska

Abstract
Following the break up of the Former Yugoslavia, the main challenges the newly established republics faced were to consolidate their statehood and to define the membership criteria of their political communities. These processes were complex since the reality of the newly independent republics did not fit the imaginations of ethno-political entrepreneurs who sought the congruence of ethnic communities and state borders. The Croatian case displays almost all of the typical controversies and challenges associated to the former Yugoslavia successor states’ regimes: ethnic engineering through citizenship policies, state exclusion and self exclusion of ethnic minorities from the core citizenry and liberalisation of the citizenship regime in the light of EU integration. While over the last twenty years Croatia established a stable legal framework for its citizenship, the scope of rights recognised for particular categories of citizens was the object of the gradual change. By closely scrutinising the citizenship policies relating to two main target groups, the Croatian diaspora and the Serb minority, this paper will argue that the Croatian citizenship regime has evolved through two stages of development over the last two decades. The citizenship debate during the first stage was concerned primarily with the ‘status dimension’ while the debate during the second stage moved towards the ‘rights dimensions’ of citizenship. Finally, the last section of this paper will highlight a possible third stage of the further evolution of the Croatian citizenship regime that may develop as the outcome of Croatian accession to the EU.

Keywords
citizenship, Croatia, politics, triadic configuration model, Croatian diaspora, Serb minority, Europeanisation

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