Section: Working Papers

2012

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2012/25

Citizenship in Media Discourse in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia

 Davor Marko

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to systematize existing research on media reporting related to various aspects of citizenship, and to contribute with a primary analysis of media content, in order to define how the leading print media in four states (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia) reported on these issues. After establishing the profile of each state, this paper provides a profile of the analysed media, followed by a short summary of how these media reported on selected citizenship-related issues and topics. The main trends in media reporting were analysed within an interdisciplinary theoretical framework that includes the selected approaches / theories in media and communication studies, but also the studies on citizenship. The main assumption is that the mass media in the states under scrutiny, while reporting on citizenship-related issues,, have mostly legitimized governments in determining their citizenship policies. Only in Montenegro and, to some extent, in Croatia, when it comes to external voting, have oppositional media outlets continuously criticized the “official” citizenship policies, while in other states the leading media discourses lack a polemical and critical stance towards citizenship-related issues.

Keywords
media, political clientelism, citizenship, nationalism

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2012/24

Citizenship and Social Justice in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia

 Eldar Sarajlic

Abstract
The paper focuses on the ways that distribution of social resources is framed by particular citizenship policies and implicit views of justice in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia, the three successor states of the former socialist federation of Yugoslavia. It inquires about the nature of the relation between citizenship and social resource distributive policies, and assesses their justifiability and grounding in moral and political norms. By looking at the overlapping citizenship regimes that characterize relations among these successor states, it tries to determine the ways in which they do or do not conform to particular principles of social justice.

Keywords
Citizenship, distribution, social justice, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia

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2012/23

Citizenship and Education Policies in the post-Yugoslav States

 Nataša Pantic

Abstract
This paper explores interactions between citizenship and education policies in six post-Yugoslav contexts, focusing on group and individual education rights, ethnocentric, multicultural and civic elements of citizenship in education policies, and the extent to which they encourage inclusive or exclusive concepts of citizenship. These interactions are explored by looking at education system structures, language and curricula policies. Universal and consociation education systems have been distinguished, with the ethnocentric and exclusive citizenship concepts reflected in the context-dependent status of different minorities, and in the uses of education to perpetuate dominant ethnic groups at different levels. Inclusive elements have been recognised in relation to the improving status of the Roma minority in education. A number of minority language instruction options, mostly available as a group right, reflect multicultural approaches to linguistic and cultural rights in education, although ethnocentric motives can be discerned behind their territorial implementation. Civic elements have been recognised in the introduction of civic education as curricular units, but ethnocentric ones prevail in other relevant school subject curricula, textbooks, and especially in hidden curricula precluding intercultural contact. The emphasis on group rights is strong, while monitoring non-discrimination and protection of individual human rights is scant.

Keywords
Citizenship, education, minority rights, civic education, former Yugoslavia

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2012/22

Territoriality and Citizenship: Membership and Sub-State Polities in Post-Yugoslav Space

 Dejan Stjepanovic

Abstract
This paper deals with the issue of sub-state citizenship in the post-Yugoslav countries and focuses on the emergence and definitions of membership in sub-state polities. The paper analyses conceptions of nationhood and territorial compositions of these states, proceeds with the analysis of sub-state entities’ governance arrangements as a part of the states’ citizenship regimes and compares conceptions of nationhood and membership in state-wide and sub-state polities. The paper identifies four broad categories of sub-state polities and two diverging tendencies in the definition of membership in those. At one end of the spectrum, there are cases in which membership in regional polities is based on territorial, multi-ethnic and civic principles. At the other end, membership is defined in ethno-national terms.

Keywords
Citizenship, territories, membership, sub-state citizenship, polities, post-Yugoslav space

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2012/21

Europeanisation through mobility: visa liberalisation and citizenship regimes in the Western Balkans

 Simonida Kacarska

Abstract
This paper examines the implications of the visa liberalisation dialogues which took place between the European Commission and national governments of the Western Balkans for the citizenship regimes of the countries concerned. The visa liberalisation process is approached as a tool of Europeanisation of the area of justice, freedom and security and as an exercise of EU conditionality. The analysis reflects on the negotiations for visa liberalisation as well as the mechanisms established for post-visa liberalisation monitoring. Looking both at the formal benchmarking process and through interviews with stakeholders at the national level, the paper traces how the visa liberalisation process affected the status and rights dimension of citizenship in the region.

Keywords
visa liberalisation, citizenship, Western Balkans, asylum seekers

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2012/20

Citizenship, Ethnicity, and Territory: the Politics of Selecting by Origin in Post-Communist Southeast Europe

 Marko Žilovic

Abstract
This paper seeks to conceptualise, map, and make a step toward more comprehensively explaining variations in preferential naturalisation regimes in post-communist Southeast Europe. In doing so it makes three interrelated contributions to the field of citizenship studies. First, to conceptualise dependent variables more exactly I follow the recent trend of disaggregating the concept of citizenship by focusing on external selectivity regimes. I develop a typology of these regimes that combines dimensions of ethnicity and territoriality. Second, relying on the data and country reports produced in the first phase of the CITSEE and EUDO research projects I systematically map temporal and cross-case variations in external selectivity regimes of all 12 post-communist cases of Southeast Europe. Third, utilising advantages of this comparative view I build and demonstrate initial plausibility of a comprehensive explanatory model that builds on the existing research by delimiting scope conditions and relative causal weight of several existing explanations. I find that the politics of selecting by origin in post-communist Southeast Europe has been crucially shaped by differences (a) between old nation-states prone to act as external national homelands, newly emerging nationalizing states, and ethnically divided states; and (b) between the years of ‘thickened history’ in the early post-communist period and the later, politically calmer period after 2000.

Keywords
Citizenship, external selectivity regimes, naturalisation, ethnic politics, emigration, kin-state, post-communism

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2012/19

EU citizenship and the edges of Europe

 Jo Shaw

Abstract
This paper considers the prospects for EU citizenship in the current EU economic and political crisis. It contrasts the neglect of the concept of EU citizenship on the part of Member States, including their willingness to trample on many aspects of the free movement principle, with the interest in EU citizenship shown by substate political actors in Scotland, where an independence referendum is under consideration.

Keywords
European Union, citizenship, free movement, crisis

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